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Prostate Cancer Foundation Highlights Evidence-Based Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines for Black Men
During National Black Family Cancer Awareness Week PCF urges men to know their risk

LOS ANGELES, Calif., June 18, 2024 – In its ongoing work to address health disparities for Black men related to prostate cancer, the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) today announces newly published guidelines for prostate cancer screening for Black men in the U.S.

One in six Black men in the U.S. will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in his lifetime (vs. one in eight white men). Black men are more likely to be diagnosed at a younger age, with more aggressive disease, and are more than twice as likely to die of prostate cancer.1

After determining there was an unmet need for guidelines for prostate cancer screening specifically for Black men, in January 2023 PCF convened a panel of experts in the social determinants of health, racial disparities, epidemiology, and the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to review the literature and establish guidelines.

The expert panel recently published its recommendations and guidelines for prostate cancer screening for Black men in NEJM Evidence. The new guidelines do not replace but rather complement current U.S. guidelines for early detection of prostate cancer.

“The thought leaders PCF convened have given Black men and their doctors evidence-based guidelines from which to make shared decisions about screening for prostate cancer,” said PCF President Gina Carithers. “By widely sharing these guidelines, we can help reduce death and suffering from the disease in this underserved population.”

The panel comprised 19 investigators representing primary care, urology, medical oncology, radiation oncology and methodology (clinical trials and epidemiology), half of whom identified as Black. In addition, three Black patient advocates with a history of prostate cancer shared their personal experiences. William K. Oh, MD, of the Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute at Mount Sinai, and Isla P. Garraway, MD, PhD, of the Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, served as Guideline Chairs.

The investigators completed a comprehensive literature search. From 1,848 unique publications, researchers narrowed their review to 264 relevant studies. The review was guided by six key questions about whether Black men should be screened for prostate cancer, what they should know about how screening is conducted and how to make informed decisions about screening, at what age Black men should start being screened and what age should they consider stopping PSA screening, and how family history and genetic risk should figure into screening decisions for Black men.

The expert panel formulated the following Prostate Cancer Foundation 2023 Guideline Statements for Prostate Cancer Screening in Black Men in the United States:

  • Since Black men are at high risk for prostate cancer, the benefits of screening generally outweigh the risks.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a blood test that should be considered first-line for prostate cancer screening. Some providers may recommend an optional digital rectal exam in addition to the PSA test.
  • Decisions about PSA testing depend on individual preferences. Black men should engage in shared decision-making with their health care providers to learn about the pros and cons of screening.
  • For Black men who elect screening, a baseline PSA test should be done between the ages of 40 – 45. Depending on the PSA value and the individual’s health status, annual PSA screening should be strongly considered.
  • Black men over age 70 who have been undergoing prostate cancer screening should talk with their health care provider about whether to continue PSA testing and make an informed decision based on their age, life expectancy, health status, family history, and prior PSA levels.
  • Black men with an even higher risk of prostate cancer due to a strong family history and/or known carriers of high-risk genetic variants should consider initiating annual PSA screening as early as age 40.

PCF is sharing this information widely among Black men and their families as well as clinicians through its many communications channels including pcf.org and partner site Urotoday.com, patient webinars, informational videos, social media, patient guides, and other platforms.


1 Lillard JW, Moses KA, Mahal BA, et al. Cancer 2022;128:3787-3795


About the Prostate Cancer Foundation
The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is the world’s leading philanthropic organization dedicated to funding life-saving prostate cancer research. Founded in 1993 by Mike Milken, PCF has been responsible for raising more than $1 billion in support of cutting-edge research through more than 2,250 research projects at 245 leading cancer centers, with a global footprint spanning 28 countries. Since PCF’s inception, and through its efforts, patients around the world are living longer, suffering fewer complications, and enjoying better quality of life. PCF is committed to the mission of ending death and suffering from the disease. Learn more at pcf.org.


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Staci L. Vernick
Prostate Cancer Foundation
[email protected]/[email protected]