Zero: The Project to End Prostate Cancer

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1. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in men in the U.S., and the 4th most common tumor diagnosed worldwide.

2. In the United States, 1 in 8 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in his lifetime. For men of African descent, 1 in 7 will develop the disease.

3. African American men are 79% more likely to develop prostate cancer than Caucasian men, and are more than twice as likely to die from the disease.

4. In 2021, nearly 249,000 U.S. men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more than 34,000 will die from the disease. That’s one new case diagnosed every 3 minutes and another death from prostate cancer every 15 minutes.

5. A man is more likely to develop prostate cancer than he is to develop colon, kidney, melanoma, and stomach cancers combined.

6. It is estimated that more than 3 million U.S. men are living with prostate cancer.

7. As men increase in age, their risk of developing prostate cancer increases exponentially. About 6 in 10 cases are found in men over the age of 65.

8. Men with relatives — father, brother, son — with a history of prostate cancer may be twice as likely to develop the disease.

9. Prostate cancer can be silent — it’s important to get checked, even if you have no symptoms.

10. 99% of patients with local or regional disease live 5 years or longer after diagnosis.

Download a PDF version of this list here

1. Eat fewer calories and exercise more so that you maintain a healthy weight.

2. Try to keep the amount of fat you get from red meat and dairy products to a minimum.

3. Watch your calcium intake. Do not take supplemental doses far above the recommended daily allowance. Some calcium is OK, but avoid taking more than 1,200 mg per day.

4. Eat more fish – evidence from several studies suggest that fish can help protect against prostate cancer because they have “good fat,” particularly omega-3 fatty acids. Avoid trans fatty acids (for example, in margarine).

5. Incorporate cooked tomatoes (prepared with olive oil), which may be beneficial, and cruciferous vegetables (like broccoli and cauliflower) into many of your weekly meals. Soy-based foods and green tea are also potential dietary components that may be helpful.

6. Avoid smoking for many reasons. Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all.

7. Seek medical treatment for stress, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and depression. Treating these conditions may save your life and will improve your survivorship with prostate cancer.

8. Avoid over-supplementation with megavitamins. While a multivitamin is not likely to be harmful, you probably don’t need it if you follow a healthy diet with lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and healthy oils. Ask your doctor about herbal supplements as some may harm you or interfere with treatment.

9. Relax and enjoy life. Reducing stress in the workplace and home will improve your survivorship and lead to a longer, happier life.

10. For men 45 or older (40 or older for African American men or those with a family history of prostate cancer), discuss the risks and benefits of screening with a PSA test and, if indicated, a rectal examination, with your doctor.

Download a PDF version of this list here

Your donation is tax-deductible to the full extent of the law. Please note that purchases from the Prostate Cancer Foundation store are not tax-deductible.

Our tax id is #95-4418411.

Tax receipts are sent by email for all online donations. All donations mailed in, faxed in or given over the phone will receive a receipt by mail.

  • How long does the average trial last?
  • What if I am on other medication(s) from my regular doctor?
  • What are the risks involved?
  • What if I am harmed?
  • Are there any tests requiring painful shots or blood samples?
  • What should I do if I want a friend/parent to join a study?
  • Will I be paid?
  • Will I be reimbursed for gas?
  • What kinds of medical problems would prevent participation in the clinical trial?
  • Do I have to talk to my health insurance company before enrolling in a study?
  • What if I miss a dose?
  • Can I drop out at any time?
  • Are there placebos involved?

If you decide that a clinical study may be right for you, make a list of questions and discuss them with the study doctor at your initial visit.

After a study is complete, the FDA decides whether to continue or halt the drug’s development. If it remains in development, the sponsor may build in a compassionate use extension for the study. This means that eligible patients may receive the study drug for a predefined amount of time without having to undergo any typical study procedures, such as blood tests or clinical ratings. This usually occurs in later studies, such as Phase III and Phase IV (post-marketing surveillance).

In some cases, a study doctor may dispense approved medication samples and provide additional consultation free of charge. These are just a few of the ways he or she might show appreciation for a patients involvement in a study.

There are three primary phases an investigational drug has to go through before it can be approved by the FDA, and a fourth phase that an approved drug may enter.

Phase I

In this phase of a clinical trial, the sponsor wants to determine the maximum tolerated dose for the medication. Mode of action (how the drug exerts its effects), safety and side effects – these are some of the main issues that are of the utmost concern to drug makers at this stage of the clinical trial process. It is important to note that in Phase I studies, the overall safety of the medication in patients has not been established. Efficacy in Phase I, if observed, must be considered anecdotal until confirmed in more advanced studies.

Phase II

A drug reaches Phase II only when the FDA has reviewed the Phase I data and concludes that the drug is safe for patients, and that its clinical activity may be beneficial against a particular disease or condition. At this point, a larger group of patients are enrolled and condition- or disease-specific rating scales are used to record data. The goals are to continue safety assessment and to determine dosage for pivotal, Phase III efficacy trials.

Phase III

This is an important turning point for drug development. The medication has already passed the rigorous testing and review process required by the FDA, and now it is ready to be studied in an even larger patient population, with even more advanced rating scales and clinical measures. In recent years, there has been a growing industry trend to not only measure clinical effectiveness at this phase, but also measure “real world” results. For example, if patients show clinical improvement after entering the study, how are their activities of daily living improving (e.g., patients can work in the garden more often or attend their child’s games on a regular basis)? Most medications that reach Phase III will at least be considered for approval by an FDA advisory board.

Phase IV

At this phase in development, the drug has already been granted FDA approval. Phase IV studies are often performed to either identify an additional use for an already approved drug, or to gather additional safety information from a larger group of patients. In some cases, Phase IV studies are implemented to establish effectiveness in a subgroup of patients, for example, patients over age 65.