If you are of African descent, you are at higher risk of getting prostate cancer. However, says PCF-funded physician-scientist Kosj Yamoah, M.D., Ph.D., radiation oncologist and cancer epidemiologist at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida, this news should not make you feel defeated. Instead, use this knowledge as advance warning! Here, then, are some facts and encouraging advice about how you can take action:
Fact: If you’re a Black man, you are more likely to get prostate cancer. Your odds are one out of six, as opposed to one out of eight for men of other races. “In other words,” says Yamoah, “you are over 75 percent more likely to get the disease than non-Black men.”
How can you act on this? “Get your first PSA by age 40.” Note: you might have to ask your doctor for this, because many doctors don’t start prostate cancer screening until patients are in their mid-forties or even early fifties. But research currently under way at Moffitt and elsewhere suggests that for some Black men, the early fifties may be too late to catch cancer while it is still confined to the prostate. For whatever reasons – genetic, environmental, or both – in Black men, cancer can take less time to develop, and to spread outside the prostate. So, if you are in your forties and have not been screened, Yamoah advises, ask your doctor for a PSA test and physical exam to check for prostate cancer. “This is something you can do. Make it happen.”
Fact: Treatments for localized prostate cancer work equally well in men of all races. But that’s a limited-time offer; it only holds true if cancer is caught and treated early. “If you or a loved one are African American and have prostate cancer, get treatment in a timely manner!” says Yamoah. “Particularly for localized prostate cancer, whether you get surgery or radiation, if you are diagnosed and are treated adequately, know that African American men survive the disease exactly the same as non-Black men – as long as these two caveats are met. In equal-access environments, there is no difference in survival.” However – perhaps because they may be younger, and otherwise may be feeling strong and healthy – if men delay treatment, because “I feel fine,” their cancer may become much more difficult to cure.
Fact: Unfortunately, treatment is variable. Success of prostate cancer treatment is operator-dependent; so is quality of life.
What does this mean for you? “Seek the best care; don’t settle for less,” says Yamoah. “It may require a bit of researching, but it makes a difference.” Making the effort now to do your due diligence and find the best surgeon or radiation oncologist will pay off for years to come. “In many states across the U.S., we have the best of the best in cancer care, but sometimes patients don’t seek the best care from centers with the appropriate expertise.” Important note: “It is also okay to get a second opinion if you are unsure about your treatment plan.” Unfortunately, patient support groups and online chat rooms abound in stories of regret, anger, or sadness from patients who did not receive excellent care. Yamoah tells his patients: “Look at it this way. You would not want to take your car to a bad mechanic; you want to take your car to the best shop. Why not your body? It should be no different for health care. We should be looking for the best. Being your own advocate for getting the best care could change your life.”
That said, “Don’t fear treatment.” For every possible side effect you might have, there are effective treatments. You can get your life back. The main thing is to be cancer-free.
Next: Personalized Care.